This is the combined syllabus for UPSC IAS and IFS Geology Optional. The characteristics of rocks directly influence the type of landforms generated. They are formed by cooling and solidification of magma from beneath the earth’s crust. Sometimes the rocks become so soft, due to their exposure to environmental conditions for longer duration, that they can be easily … Rocks are mostly classified into 3 forms. 2. Especially feldspar and quartz are two common minerals which are generally found in the rocks. Igneous Rocks. The intrusive igneous rocks or plutonic rocks are formed when the Magma cools within the earth's crust. Petrology is the science of rocks. In this article we will discuss about the seven main characteristics of igneous rocks. This video is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 1 times. The italics terms are for IFS only. These rocks are hard and resistant. Basalt is dark and fine-grained with minerals rich in magnesium and iron. #1. 1. Compare and Contrast: Igneous, Metaorphic, and Sedimentary Rocks Types of Rock Sedimentary Igneous Metamorphic Images of the Three Types of Rocks Metamorphic Sedimentary Igneous Definitions Definitions Metamorphic Rock - Forms when pressure, temperature, or chemical processes The This cooling determines the chemical composition and structure of the rock. Rocks that cool over millions of years have large pebble sized grains and are called plutonic. Granite and basalt make up the majority of igneous rocks. GK, General Studies, Optional notes for UPSC… Body – Explain the origin, formation and characteristics of Igneous rocks along with its subtypes – Plutonic and Volcanic; sedimentary rocks and its subtypes – mechanically, organically and chemically formed sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. The landforms formed by the action of volcanoes and volcanic eruptions are known as volcanic landforms. Give examples for each. The extrusive igneous rocks are formed when the cooling of Lava occurs above the Earth's surface. Igneous rocks are formed whe. Click here for a detailed analysis on Geology Optional UPSC IAS and IFS Indian Forest Services Geology Optional Syllabus Paper 1 Paper 1 Section A. Dec 08, 2020 - Rocks: Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic & Rock Cycle UPSC Video | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. (1) In all, the igneous rocks are roughly hard rocks and water percolates with great difficulty along the joints. Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of magma, which is a hot (600 to 1,300 °C, or 1,100 to 2,400 °F) molten or partially molten rock material. ; The earth is made of igneous rock – at least at the surface where our planet is exposed to the coldness … Igneous rocks. Crystals can form in the mass if cooling happens very slowly, allowing the natural geometrical shapes of the molecules to form. Earth is composed predominantly of a large mass of igneous rock with a very thin veneer of weathered material—namely, sedimentary rock.Whereas sedimentary rocks … That is, the mineral grains of intrusive igneous rocks are very large. Extrusive Igneous Rocks. Deep-seated intrusive igneous rocks are called as Plutonic rocks and shallow depth intrusive igneous rocks are called as Hypabyssal Rocks. The formation of igneous rocks can take two routes: fast or slow. This is an exothermic process (it loses heat) and involves a phase change from the liquid to the solid state. The upper 16 kilometers of the Earth’s crust is made up of 95% Igneous rock, with a thin covering of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. They are; Classification of Rocks. Igneous rocks are crystalline solids which form directly from the cooling of magma. 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