(Page 132 of her book.) He believes his Church has been much misunderstood abroad on these matters. Journal of Contemporary History 1967 2: 4, 17-37 Download Citation. of which now form part of his private collection in the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) Archive, this article traces Botha’s growing agitation regarding the implementation of apartheid policies, in the aftermath of the institution of the 1950 Group Areas Act. Major Christian (Protestant) ... African Scene in the Light of Scripture, which offered justification of apartheid, but in 1982, the World Alliance of Reformed Churches declared apartheid to be heretical. The Dutch Reformed Church provided a theological justification of apartheid, claiming that it was God's will and that the Bible supported it. Following the expulsion the Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa has moved away from supporting apartheid. Their best scholars had doctorates from mainly Dutch Universities. The Evangelical Origins of Apartheid: However from 1817, in response to a shortage of Dutch clergy to fill the DRC pulpits, the British Governor Somerset imported Scottish evangelical ministers, including the Murray family, to fulfill these Reformed pulpits. Show TV Channels Hide TV Channels TV ; Show Radio Channels Statement by Black Ministers of the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in Afrika (Dutch Reformed Church in Africa) Johannesburg. By continuing to browse The ministers fraternal of the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa met to discuss newspaper reports which have recently appeared in connection with our rejection of apartheid… Duckworth exhibited at the Durban Art Gallery in 1971, at which point eight paintings … The white-dominated ‘Dutch Reformed Church’ supported apartheid, arguing from the Bible that God deliberately divided people into different races (see Genesis 11) but used this to suggest therefore that the whites were superior to blacks. Genome BETA Radio Times 1923 - 2009. Thesis (9.834Mb) Date 2016. Early in his career, he served as a “missionary” in a DRMC congregation in Wynberg, and subsequently in other The Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) in South Africa is currently striving to revive and enhance its missional identity with its core aspect being a church for Africa, said DRC general secretary Dr Gustav Claassen. Page 1 of 13 - About 129 essays. The Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) helped apartheid tie the black and red threats together as a challenge to white, Christian, and Western values. January 2002 ; Journal of Hate Studies 2(1) DOI: 10.33972/jhs.11. Longford, Samuel. In 1986 all congregations in the church were desegregated. Serfontein.1 Based on years of extensive interviews with church people, it contains many In … \\server05\productn\G\GHS\2-1\GHS104.txt unknown Seq: 5 8-AUG-03 13:18 2002/03] ROLE THE DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH PLAYED 67 III. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Similarly, an official statement of the Reformed church stated, "The principle of apartheid between races and peoples, also separate missions and churches, is well supported by scripture." The Dutch Reformed Church submission brings to an end three days of testimony from the religious community about their role in the apartheid system. How the Dutch reformed Church went to the extent of supporting and maintaining apartheid is still more puzzling. In the early 1980s the World Alliance of Reformed Churches declared apartheid to be a heresy and expelled the Dutch Reformed Church from its organisation. Dutch Reformed Church in Africa and the Dutch Reformed Mission Church with reference to involvement by their members in the struggle for justice in South Africa. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. In 1991, Dr. Coenie Burger of Stellenbosch University published his research on the state of practical theology for the South African Council of Human Science Research. A few Dutch Reformed clergy opposed apartheid. Archbishop Desmond Tutu, who chairs the body, said much had been achieved and expressed the hope that the Church's truth-telling would lead to an improved moral climate in South Africa." They had a number of large and well-supported theological seminaries with very high standards. Joint communique of the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (NGKA): Lusaka, Zambia, February 19, 1988, The crisis in the Dutch Reformed churches, Black Ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church: statement on apartheid, Settler Colonialism and Afrikaner Nationalism, Hugh Eksteen Photographic Museum, Polokwane-Limpopo. Edit Submit Cancel Appears in. One of the first champions of Afrikaner nationalism was an ordained minister, Stephen Du Toit (1847–1911) of the Dutch Reformed Church, who became one of the founding members (1881) of the Afrikaner Bond as well as the publisher of Die Afrikaanse Patriot newspaper (founded in 1876). Bishop Kevin Dowling admitted that the Catholic Church's ranks include "supporters and perpetrators of apartheid atrocities," although the church itself preached "reconciliation between victims and perpetrators." Dutch Reformed Church in Africa, Afrikaans Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk In Afrika, denomination formed in 1859 by the all-white Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa for its black African mission congregations. A few Dutch Reformed clergy opposed apartheid. More recently the church labelled apartheid as a sin in the hope of uniting its congregants regardless of race. Contributors. The discourse between the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) and race is a difficult and intense one. It examines the thinking on apartheid at the time, within the Dutch Reformed Church and outside it, as reflected in resolutions of the General Synod and other ecclesiastical assemblies and in other documents. When the Dutch settled in South Africa in the 16th and 17th centuries they transplanted their Dutch Reformed theology to the African continent. The Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Dutch Reformed Church or Hervomde Kerk. (the majority Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa with around 80% of white Afrikaans-speaking reformed church-goers) remains Apartheid, Change and the NG Kerk, by J.H.P. Influenced by Dutch Reformed Church leaders, the apartheid government sought to proscribe artistic works that expressed opposition to the politics and ideologies of the time. Date: Monday, 29 October, 2018 - 15:00. What is more, they were very evangelistic and worked tirelessly to see black South Africans converted and worshiping in their own churches. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article, Click the button below for the full-text content, 24 hours online access to download content. How the Dutch reformed Church went to the extent of supporting and maintaining apartheid is still more puzzling. The history of the church has been very much bound with the politics of the Afrikaner community of South Africa. The Login failed. Critics of apartheid often blame Christians for itsexistence claiming that racial oppression in South Africa is the fruit ofChristianity. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Major Christian (Protestant) Church, originally in the Netherlands, but spreading to other parts of the world through missionary work.It was organized during the revolt of the Low Countries against Spain in the 16th cent. General Synodal Commission (GSC) of the Dutch Reformed Church, on the history of the three decades between 1960 and 1994. Rather the church often got caught up in its debates on the legitimacy and right of resistance against the authorities. The Reformed Church of South Africa was the largest denomination in the country by far. The first document stated the policy of the church on apartheid and defended the policy on biblical grounds. The church supported the system of apartheid, which institutionalized separation and stratification of the people of South Africa according to race. Dutch Reformed Church or Hervomde Kerk. The Dutch Reformed Church provided a theological justification of apartheid, claiming that it was God's will and that the Bible supported it. In spite of the end of apartheid, racial divides still exists within the church. Joint communique of the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (NGKA): Lusaka, Zambia, February 19, 1988 Dutch reformed Church and apartheid theology 1829 The Confession of Belhar has as background the racial, racist, segregationist and apartheid history and theology in South Africa. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. It was only in 1998 that the DRC officially recognized apartheid "as wrong and sinful ... in its fundamental nature." Tutu and others like him chose non-violent methods, for example protest movements, and petitions. In 1996 the DRC had 1 288 837 White members, the Uniting Reformed Church (mainly Coloured) had 1 216 252 members, and the Reformed Church in Africa (mainly Indian) had 2 386 members. The Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa was formally established by Jan Van Riebeeck in 1652. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. This site uses cookies. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. The Bible says: ‘There is … To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access. They then later turned their backs on them and washed their hands of them. View or download all the content the society has access to. Near the end of the apartheid era in South Africa, the DRCA began union negotiations with the Dutch Reformed Mission Church. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. The Dutch Reformed Church and Apartheid Susan Rennie Ritner Among the many sad ironies of South African life perhaps none is more poignant than the role of the dominant church of the Afrikaner people - the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk.1 For the Afrikaners remain one of … Dutch Reformed Church, Afrikaans Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK), South African denomination that traces its beginnings to the Reformed tradition of the first white settlers who came to South Africa from the Netherlands in the mid-17th century. The separation on the basis of race goes… The history of the church has been very much bound up with the politics of the Afrikaner community of South Africa. Susan Rennie Ritner. In 1986 the church showed its repentance by preaching for all members of all racial groups to pray under, one umbrella, thus making South African history by welcoming Black people back in the church. Where were the Churches and God fearing Christians during segregation in the South in the earlier part of the last century. branch of the Dutch Reformed Church, a denomination that condemns as theological heresy any effort to use the Bible or Calvinist theology as justification for apartheid. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. South Africa is in the news,and Christians are called upon to explain the relationship between Christianityand apartheid. Did you know the Dutch Reformed Church, one of your Christian churches in South Africa upheld apartheid? It examines the thinking on apartheid at the time, within the Dutch Reformed Church and outside it, as reflected in resolutions of the General Synod and other ecclesiastical assemblies and in other documents. The common point of reference in all of this, within the framework of Church history, is the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC). Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. The DRC general secretary explained how the DRC is the oldest church in the family of Reformed churches and, in the past, it was referred to as the “mother church”. Theology legitimised apartheid, but was also instrumental in its end. a testimony of the Dutch Reformed Church. [1] In 2013 it claimed 1.1 million members and 1,602 ordained ministers in 1,158 congregations. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Theologizing in the Midst of Apartheid. Dutch Reformed Church. branch of the Dutch Reformed Church, a denomination that condemns as theological heresy any effort to use the Bible or Calvinist theology as justification for apartheid. (Page 132 of her book.) The religious connectedness would play a vital role in the Dutch criticism of apartheid. Lean Library can solve it. How are Christians to respond? Chidester writes: "As the National Party came to power in 1948, theologians of the Dutch Reformed Church read the Bible as an 'Apartheid Bible', finding that God was the 'Maker of Separations'. Dutch Reformed Church in Africa, Afrikaans Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk In Afrika, denomination formed in 1859 by the all-white Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa for its black African mission congregations. Search the BBC Search the BBC. Black Ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church: Statement on Apartheid. 4)The ministers’ fraternal noted with regret a rumor, according to news reports, that a possible split may occur between the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa and the Dutch Reformed Church. [1] His research was conducted in the late 1980s, at the height of Apartheid, in part, to explore the question of whether Reformed theology offered anything unique and distinctive to … A Minister of the Dutch Reformed South Church Africa, of now on study leave in Holland. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below. \\server05\productn\G\GHS\2-1\GHS104.txt unknown Seq: 5 8-AUG-03 13:18 2002/03] ROLE THE DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH PLAYED 67 III. So it was in the case of apartheid and the Dutch Reformed Church’s Calvinism. View/ Open. Baptismal water symbolises the death of the old sinful self and the rebirth into new life. November 16, 1973. From Demonic Faith to Redemptive Faith: The Ambiguity of Faith in the ... View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. The response of South Africa's religious institutions to apartheid spanned a wide spectrum – from overt support to tacit acceptance and outright rejection. Key Words: Apartheid, Dutch Reformed Churches, Church Struggle, Broederkring, Belhar Introduction There is no clear consensus on the definition of human dignity. Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) Collection Persecution of Churchmen and Other Religious Workers Oppressed to Apartheid Use, by Kenneth N. Carstens. The theology of apartheid was based on the apparently innocuous principle that human diversity is God’s will. The Headquarters of the Main Centre is in Pretoria. A seven-dimensional praxis matrix is used to explore one of those trajectories, namely: “Standing for justice.” The sources used for this exploration are mainly official church documents. See DRC, The Dutch Reformed Churches in South Africa and the Problem of Race Relations (n.d. [1956]), 13. How a Church could ever support any form of discrimination is still surprising. The transition in South Africa from apartheid to a constitutional democracy with equal rights for all has been described and celebrated in innumerable accounts. It has the same structure, doctrine, traditions, and customs as the mother church, which retains extensive control over it by supplying 80 percent of its budget. World Cultures 2 Essay 1471 Words | 6 Pages. The union was formalized in 1994, but for theological and procedural reasons, a large group of congregations decided to withdraw from the union. The Dutch Reformed Church [and it’s Christian Nationalism – John Calvin’s false Kingdom Now teaching of ‘ divine predestination,’ etc.,] actually embodied this type of [socialist-communist] nationalism… known as Apartheid.” This is one of the correct statements Woods made about the masonic apartheid regime. W. A. Landman. It has the same structure, doctrine, traditions, and customs as the mother church, which retains extensive control over it by supplying 80 percent of its budget. The Dutch Reformed Church (Afrikaans: Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, abbreviated NGK) is a Reformed Christian denomination in South Africa.It also has a presence in neighbouring countries, such as Namibia, Swaziland, and parts of Botswana, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Dutch Reformed Church Abraham ... Afrikaner Calvinism, played an instrumental role in the development of Afrikaner nationalism and consequently in the apartheid ideology. General Synodal Commission (GSC) of the Dutch Reformed Church, on the history of the three decades between 1960 and 1994. The social segregation of Black, Coloured and White people was reflected in the establishment of churches of these three groups. … The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. South Africas Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) and the Afrikaner people it served had, since the 17th century drawn a distinction between white Christians and the … Jan van Riebeeck formally established the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC) of South Africa in 1652. In the 1980s the church was expelled from the World Alliance of Reformed Churches for its support of apartheid. Black Ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church: statement on apartheid; Persecution of Churchmen and Other Religious Workers Oppressed to Apartheid Use, by Kenneth N. Carstens. D. P. (David) Botha was a lifelong apartheid critic and minister in the Dutch Reformed Mission Church (DRMC) and later the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA). The Church's Struggle Against Apartheid The failure to denounce, resist and incite to resist apartheid and its resulting violations of human rights, constitutes the failure of the church to live up to its faith convictions. ��� This annotated bibliography is an attempt to remind the Christiancommunity that the question of the relationship between Christianity andapartheid is hardly new, that already a large literature exists dealin… Author. The suppression of communism, the Dutch Reformed Church, and the instrumentality of fear during apartheid. Metadata Show full … Joint communique of the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (NGKA): Lusaka, Zambia, February 19, 1988 But the support for the Apartheid policies came from Calvinism's view of the world and not from Christ. Dutch Reformed Church, which, as we will see, established lasting mythological frameworks of the ‘Volk’ and produced a narrative surrounding communism that, I will argue, allowed apartheid’s ideological gatekeepers to extend the “triumph of Christianity over heathendom”, 37. and “civilisation over barbarism” 38. Chidester writes: "As the National Party came to power in 1948, theologians of the Dutch Reformed Church read the Bible as an 'Apartheid Bible', finding that God was the 'Maker of Separations'. The Dutch Reformed Church (Afrikaans: Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk, abbreviated NGK) is a Reformed Christian denomination in South Africa.It also has a presence in neighbouring countries, such as Namibia, Swaziland, and parts of Botswana, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Confessing remorse about the evils of Apartheid: the Dutch Reformed Church in the Nineteen-Eighties. Bloemfontein: NG Sendingpers, p.47. The second document constituted the first step the church took away from the policy of apartheid. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. (the majority Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa with around 80% of white Afrikaans-speaking reformed church-goers) remains Apartheid, Change and the NG Kerk, by J.H.P. The Dutch Reformed Church [and it’s Christian Nationalism – John Calvin’s false Kingdom Now teaching of ‘ divine predestination,’ etc.,] actually embodied this type of [socialist-communist] nationalism… known as Apartheid.” This is one of the correct statements Woods made about the masonic apartheid regime. Race is a difficult and intense one worked tirelessly to see Black Africans... Continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies and worshiping in their churches! General Synodal Commission ( GSC ) of the Church has been very much with! Professor B N. 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